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It seems more likely, therefore, that the collection of Clairvaux in which he read was an earlier collection than either of these. It may not have been limited to Mary legends and was, perhaps, the common source of some of the Cistercian legends in the Clairvaux compilations of Mary legends, Caesar of Heisterbach , and the Exordium magnum ordinis Cisterciensis of Conrad of Eberbach, a contemporary of Caesar of Heisterbach. As for pseudo-Caesarius, it cannot be said with certainty that he did not know the Clairvaux Mariale or the Mariale magnum, although it seems very doubtful.

The other four do appear in MS Paris , although the details differ radically from those of pseudo-Caesarius.

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The Mariale collections, it is clear, were descended from the large compilations of northern France, specifically those with a prologue beginning Quoniam gloriosissima virgo virginum. Two representatives of this group existed in the thirteenth century in the monasteries of Paris, one at St.

A third, MS Paris , cannot be traced to a particular source. One of these, or another very like it, must have been the link between the Parisian collections and the Mariale family, the source of the non-Cistercian legends of the Clairvaux Mariale. John of Garland says in a note appended to the Stella maris that he versified the legends he tells from a collection which he found in the book-press of the monastery of Ste.

Victor and St. The original of John of Garland must have been a summa of Mary legends current in northern France in the first half of the thirteenth century.

Much more than documents.

The collection of Ste. The Quoniam gloriosissima virgo prologue, which characterizes the legends of St. The author of the long gloss of the British Museum manuscript of the Stella maris treats the theme more fully in the manner of the Quoniam prologue. It is possible that the manuscript of Ste. John of Garland merely suggests the incidents, to which the Bruges gloss of the Stella maris adds more detail.

The legends of the Stella maris were, of course, derived from a single source, the manuscript of Ste. Victor SV 1 , the first series of St. The nucleus around which the collection of Ste. Of the sixty-one legends of the Stella maris, thirty-seven are the same legends in the same versions as those of the twelfth-century SV 1. The only miracles of SV 1 conspicuously absent from the Stella maris are those which are versified. The relationship of the collection of Ste. The Stella maris and SG 1 have in common, not only thirty-four of the thirty-seven legends of SV 1 , but also nine more narratives.

Forty-three of the sixty-one legends which John of Garland versified at Ste. It is more likely, however, that the collection from which the legends of Ste. Fifty of the sixty-one legends of the Stella maris, then, may be accounted for with reference to MS Paris X 1.

Comparison of the legends of the Stella maris with the second series X 2 of MS Paris , however, makes it certain that the collection of Ste. John of Garland did not use the versified redactions of X 2. He tells three of the legends, but his versions are those of the Rouen Mariale and Vincent of Beauvais in which they are related in prose.

Decline and Fall by Evelyn Waugh

Victor, where some of the legends appear in verse. The manuscript which John of Garland used at Ste. The two Cistercian legends, furthermore, have been the means of distinguishing certain of the Quoniam collections from others. The work of St. Obviously the three collections are an intimately related group.

Where shall the Rouen Mariale be placed with reference to the other two? The first two collections, X 1 and the collection of Ste. Of the legends that can be dated, the most recent occur in the Rouen Mariale. Comparison of the three collections suggests that the first series R 1 of the Rouen Mariale might have been drawn either from MS Paris X 1 or from the collection of Ste.

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The two latter, however, are important in the differentiation of the Quoniam collections. They belong to the versified series of X 2. The legends which clearly distinguish the collection of Ste. It is, for the most part, made up of legends which are lacking in both the Stella maris and X 1 , some of them local or unique. Only two legends commonly in other Quoniam collections are among them.

The lost collection of Ste. Vincent of Beauvais and John of Garland both extracted legends from collections using the Quoniam gloriosissima virgo prologue. The other five have come to light in the same versions only in Vincent of Beauvais , or in collections known to be related to his or to the Mariale magnum:. Vincent of Beauvais V 2 selected, then, from the Clairvaux Mariale eight of the same legends which John of Garland took from the collection of Ste. From the Mariale magnum he took fourteen of the legends of Ste. Nine of the fourteen legends common to the collection of Ste. Presumably these nine legends, at least, arrived in the Rouen Mariale by way of its source, the Clairvaux Mariale.

Seventeen of the narratives of Ste. The number must actually have been much larger for two reasons: 1 John of Garland merely selected legends from a larger collection at Ste. These selective processes tended to reduce the number of legends common to Vincent of Beauvais and the Stella maris, upon whose fragments of their originals our evidence must depend.

Even if there were no other confirmation, seventeen legends, therefore, seems a sufficiently large number upon which to base the conclusion that the collection of Ste. From the Clairvaux Mariale, the Rouen collection had thirty legends of Ste.


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The eight legends of V 2 , the Dominican compiler derived directly from that source. The order of the narratives of Vincent of Beauvais , the Rouen Mariale, and the Stella maris supports the same conclusion. The Mariale magnum and the Rouen Mariale, it would seem, inherited it from the collection of Ste.

Garfield, Evelyn Picon [WorldCat Identities]

Explicit de Mariali magno. Item alia, which indicates that the compiler was using all the legends between those notes in their original order. In other words, the series V 1 is a portion of the Mariale magnum; the legends of V 2 are merely tales selected in no particular order from the Clairvaux Mariale. The character of the Stella maris as a whole is further evidence of the relation of its source, the collection of Ste. As such it is a collection unique in the history of Mary legends.

The hypothesis which makes the collection of Ste. Although it is missing from the Rouen Mariale and Vincent of Beauvais , it does appear in the second series, Q 2 , of MS Paris and the Vendome collection which are both descendants of the Mariale magnum. One, the story of the healing of the victims of ergotism at Notre-Dame de Paris, was obviously inserted to enable the author to pay a compliment to William of Auvergne, bishop of Paris.

It could have been inserted by the author from memory, because he was preparing a lesson for school-boys. Almost all the legends and much of the introductory matter, John of Garland took from his source, but these account for only two-thirds of the lines of the Stella maris. The author intended to use his collection, as he did many of the other things he wrote, in the schools.

He tells us, therefore, that he has inserted lessons on various subjects, natural science, astronomy, and theology. Hippocrates is mentioned in support of the power of the Virgin to heal human disease. The Stella maris is significant also in other respects, quite aside from its connection with the schools and the substance it gives to the personality of the valuable collection of Ste. John of Garland wrote, not as a monk, but as a layman interested in the art of writing poetry. So far as the evidence goes, he is the first lay compiler of Mary legends in northern France.

For the first time he gives a collection of Mary legends the semblance of the literary form of the panegyric. His purpose is not that of the monk-compilers, to assemble a large number of Mary legends. The marvellous deeds of the Virgin are but examples of her power in heaven and earth, a power which the learning of the seven liberal arts, medicine, and theology confirms. The narratives, he merely suggests, and these are followed at intervals by songs in her praise.


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  4. In this respect the collection made by Alfonso el Sabio , King of Castile, , resembles the Stella maris. The Cantigas de Santa Maria was written in the second half of the thirteenth century in the Galician language. Of the four hundred and twenty-two canticles set to music, three hundred and fifty-three are Mary legends.